A well-informed citizenry is the most powerful revolutionary force in our Constitutional republic.
Republic or Democracy A Republic, writer documents
James Madison wrote "[D]emocracies have ever been spectacles of turbulence and contention; have ever been found to be incompatible with personal security or the rights of property; and have in general been as short in their lives as they have been violent in their deaths."
(The Federalist Papers, No. 10. All references to 'paper no.' in this book are from The Federalist Papers.)
It was an agreement shared by the men who were at the drafting of our Constitution in May of 1787.
Where does the notion come from that the United States is a democracy? The word democracy or democratic does not even appear in our Constitution. Nowhere.
When did they decide we are a democracy? This sounds ominously like the 'newspeak' which George Orwell spoke of in his book 1984. World War I and II were billed as wars to make the world safe for democracy. What a sham put over on Americans!
Look at our pledge of allegiance. "[A]nd to the Republic for which it stands. . ." That doesn't say anything about a democracy, does it?
"PLEASE COPY AND DISTRIBUTE "FAR AND WIDE"
Many of you have seen the reprint of this document. If you have, it's worth reading again. If you have not, it is worth reading, studying, and reciting to your friends, family, and neighbors. It is copied from Training Manual No. 2000-25 that was published by the then War Department, Washington, D.C., November 30, 1928.
Official Definition Of DEMOCRACY
Here are four (4) facsimile section reproductions taken from a 156 page book officially compiled and issued by the U.S. War Department, November 30, 1928, setting forth exact and truthful definitions of a Democracy and of a Republic, explaining the difference between both. These definitions were published by the authority of the United States Government and must be accepted as authentic in any court of proper jurisdiction.
These precise and scholarly definitions of a Democracy and a Republic were carefully considered as a proper guide for U.S. soldiers and U.S. citizens by the Chief of Staff of the United States Army. Such definitions take precedence over any "definition" that may be found in the present commercial dictionaries which have suffered periodical "modification" to please "the powers in office."
Shortly after the "bank holiday" in the thirties, hush-hush orders from the White House suddenly demanded that all copies of this book be withdrawn from the Government Printing Office and the Army posts, to be suppressed and destroyed without explanation.
This was the beginning of the complete red control of the Government from within, not from without.
Prepared under the direction of the Chief of Staff.
This manual supersedes Manual of Citizenship Training
The use of the publication "The Constitution of the United States," by Harry Atwood, is by permission and courtesy of the author.
Democracy: A government of the masses.
Authority derived through mass meeting or any other form of "direct" expression. Results in mobocracy. Attitude toward property is communistic--negating property rights. Attitude toward law is that the will of the majority shall regulate, whether is be based upon deliberation or governed by passion, prejudice, and impulse, without restraint or regard to consequences. Results in demogogism, license, agitation, discontent, anarchy.
Authority is derived through the election by the people of public officials best fitted to represent them. Attitude toward law is the administration of justice in accord with fixed principles and established evidence, with a strict regard to consequences. A greater number of citizens and extent of territory may be brought within its compass. Avoids the dangerous extreme of either tyranny or mobocracy. Results in statesmanship, liberty, reason, justice, contentment, and progress. Is the "standard form" of government throughout the world.
A republic is a form of government under a constitution which provides for the election of (1) an executive and (2) a legislative body, who working together in a representative capacity, have all the power of appointment, all power of legislation, all power to raise revenue and appropriate expenditures, and are required to create (3) a judiciary to pass upon the justice and legality of their government acts and to recognize (4) certain inherent individual rights.
Take away any one or more of those four elements and you are drifting into autocracy. Add one or more to those four elements and you are drifting into democracy.--Atwood
Superior to all others.--Autocracy declares the divine right of kings; its authority can not be questioned; its powers are arbitrarily or unjustly administered.
Democracy is the "direct" rule of the people and has been repeatedly tried without success.
Our Constitutional fathers, familiar with the strength and weakness of both autocracy and democracy, with fixed principles definitely in mind, defined a representative republican form of government. They "made a very marked distinction between a republic and a democracy * * * and said repeatedly and emphatically that they had founded a republic."
By order of the Secretary of War: C.P. Summerall, Major General, Chief of Staff.
Official: Lutz Wahl, Major General, The Adjutant General.
WHY DEMOCRACIES FAIL
A Democracy cannot exist as a permanent form of Government. It can only exist until the voters discover they can vote themselves largess out of the public treasury. From that moment on the majority always votes for the candidate promising the most benefits from the public treasury with the result that Democracy always collapses over a loose fiscal policy, always to be followed by a Dictatorship.
(Written by Professor Alexander Fraser Tytler, nearly two centuries ago while our thirteen original states were stillcolonies of Great Britain. At the time he was writing of thedecline and fall of the Athenian Republic over two thousand years before.)
Did I say "republic?" By God, yes, I said "republic!" Long live the glorious republic of the United States of America. Damn democracy. It is a fraudulent term used, often by ignorant persons but no less often by intellectual fakers, to describe an infamous mixture of socialism, miscegenation, graft, confiscation of property and denial of personal rights to individuals whose virtuous principles make them offensive.
(By Westbrook Pegler in the New York Journal American of January 25th and 26th, 1951, under the titles "Upholds Republic of U.S.Against Phony Democracy" and "Democracy in the U.S. Branded Meaningless." )
Order original from:
Americans For Constitutional Government
P.O. Box 7012
Watchung, N.J. 07060
VISUALIZED AMERICAN GOVERNMENT
Philip Dorf and Abraham Leavitt
Oxford Book Co., 1969
Roots of Our Fundamental Law
James Bryce, the brillian English political scientist who wrote, THE AMERICAN COMMONWEALTH, knew well that the Constitution he praised so highly was neither of divine origin nor the result of a sudden flash of genius.
It was conceived as a practical framework of government to meet the everyday needs of a hard-headed, hard-working people. Its roots or sources were derived from the past experience of the American people and of the English nation which gave us birth.
Traditions of Constitutional Government
To begin with, Americans of 1787 were the heirs of a well-established constitutional government which the first setlers had brought with them from England.
These traditions, which had been modified by the New World environment during the colonial era, emphasized principles of representative government, the right of local self-government, security of person and property, and reliance upon civil authorities rather than upon arbitrary military power.
These were not abstract ideals, but practical devices written into colonial charters and, after 1776, into state constitutions.
They formed the basis of the Articles of Confederation. And despite the failure of the Articles as an instrument of government, they constituted the most important single source of the Constitution.
From the Articles, the Convention derived such significant provisions as the functions of Congress, the restrictions upon the states, the recognition of interstate privileges, and the acknowledgment of the validity of the public debt.
The basic principles of the Articles, namely a secular republic, and a Federal system, were retained;
the basic defects of the Articles, namely the lack of a national executive and a national judiciary, and the denial to Congress of the power to levy taxes and regulate commerce, were not repeated.
Principles of the American Constitutional System
1. A republican form of government, for the United States as a whole, and for each of the constituent states of the Union. The maintenance of republican institutions in each of the states is specifically written into the Constitution. The principle that the Union is also indestructable is derived from the absence of any Constitutional provision authorizing a state to withdraw, and from the collapse of the secession movement as a result of the Union victory in the Civil War.
2. A secular form of government under which church and state are completely separated and under which the government has no right to interfere with the religious beliefs, or lack of religious beliefs, of an individual. 3. Supremecy of the Constitution and of all Federal laws and treaties made in pursuance thereof. The second paragraph of Article VI which proclaims the Constitution the supreme law of the land may be considered the keystone of our Federal structure. As a necessary corollary, it involves acceptance of the doctrine of judicial review. The Federal judiciary, in hearing cases, must decide whether the Federal statute in question conflicts with the Constitution, or whether a constitutional provision or statute of any state interferes with Federal law. In case of conflict, the judiciary has exercised the power to declare the conflicting measures, whether Federal or state, null and void.
4. The right of the people formally to alter their Constitution by the process of amendment. Although the method devised by the Philadelphia Convention is a cumbersome one, it does not require unanimous consent, as was the case under the Articles. Amendments may be proposed by a two-thirds vote of both houses of Congress, or by a national convention called by Congress on the application of two-thirds of the legislatures of the states or by special conventions, in three-fourths of the states. No amendment has ever been proposed by a national convention; all except the Twenty-first have been ratified by the state legislatures. One provision of the Constitution is not subject to change by the regular amending process; no state may without its consent be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate.